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Mechanochemical synthesis of small organic molecules

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Title: Competitive Quality Strategy , [Yr: ]. Secondly, the method was also applicable up to 10 g of 2-aminothiophenol and avoided the use of toxic metals which are common in benzimidazole synthesis [,]. Scheme Mechanochemical synthesis of benzothiazole using ZnO nano particles []. The catalyst worked efficiently till to the fifth cycle after regeneration by filtration of product and washing with methanol.

The method was scalable up to using of 8 g of o -phenylene diamine. Scheme Mechanochemical synthesis of 1,2-di-substituted benzimidazoles [].

Scheme Mechanochemical click reaction using an alumina-supported Cu-catalyst []. The same method was easily applicable to the synthesis using alkyl azide in 15 min []. Scheme Mechanochemical click reaction using copper vial []. Among various synthetic routes of indoles synthesis, Larock method [] possibly be the important one which utilizes 2-alkynylaniline as intermediate towards intra-molecular cyclization.

Introduction

They have correlated the milling frequency and time of reaction to the product yields and selectivity. Scheme Mechanochemical indole synthesis []. In the traditional method of pyran synthesis the use of transition metal catalyst, corrosive acid, longer reaction time, hazardous organic solvent, and tedious isolation procedure are implemented. Dekamin and co-workers have demonstrated the synthesis of pyrans using potassium phthalimide POPI as a catalyst under ball-milling which is found to be advantageous over solution phase synthesis []. Scheme Mechanochemical synthesis of chromene []. Acenes and hetero-acenes have important applications in material development such as semiconductors, photovoltaic cells, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, etc.

Moreover, the literature known methods adopted mainly harsh reaction condition and they are generally found to be low yielding [].

What is ORGANIC SYNTHESIS? What does ORGANIC SYNTHESIS mean? ORGANIC SYNTHESIS meaning & explanation

Major advantages of this mechanomilling methods were time efficient 2—4 h , simple purification procedure washing with polar solvent , high yielding, room temperature conditions, etc. Scheme Mechanochemical synthesis of azacenes []. Recently, Wang and co-workers reported the first carbon—phosphorous C—P bond synthesis under mechanochemical conditions.

Benzothiazole or thiazole rings having electron-donating or -withdrawing groups worked efficiently under this protocol. This method was also found to be applicable in gram scale synthesis with excellent yield. Mechanistically they have shown that the reaction followed a radical pathway []. Scheme Mechanochemical oxidative C-P bond formation []. Ranu and co-workers reported carbon—chalcogen C—S, C—Se, C—Te bond formation from aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborate 1 equiv , diaryl chalocogenide 0.

They have used KOH as base, neutral alumina as milling auxiliary. This solvent-free mechanomilling strategy reported to be superior to any solution phase synthesis because it avoids transition metals, could be performed in shorter reaction time and uses stable dichalcogenides rather than toxic thiols and selenols. Scheme Mechanochemical C—chalcogen bond formation []. The last decade has witnessed a rapid growth of mechanochemistry in organic synthesis as well as in inorganic coordination chemistry [].

However, the mechanochemical organometallic synthesis is still in its infancy due to certain difficulties under solvent-free synthesis. Recently the solid state syntheses of organometallic compounds have become popular. In their pioneering work Coville and co-workers presented solvent-free organometallic transformations e. Scheme Solvent-free synthesis of an organometallic complex. The examples of mechanochemical organometallic complex synthesis are relatively small, but experienced significant growth in recent times.

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In the early s, the first examples of mechanochemical organometallic reactions were discovered, included the synthesis of various indenyl, cyclopentadienyl and metallocarborane complexes []. Scheme Selective examples of mechano-synthesis of organometallic complexes. The cyclopalladation process was highly regioselective and the rate of palladation was also faster than traditional solution phase processes.

Treating this complex with another 1 equiv of Pd OAc 2 resulted in a second C—H activation to give dicyclopalladated complex F in 7. It is notable that the monocyclopalladated complexation generally takes 3 days in solution and dicyclopalladated complex in solution was never been identified []. Scheme Mechanochemical activation of C—H bond of unsymmetrical azobenzene []. Recently Aleksanyan and co-workers reported the first gram-scale synthesis of a Pd II organometallic pincer complex under mechanomilling via C—H bond activation. Scheme Mechanochemical synthesis of organometallic pincer complex [].

Hanusa and co-workers developed a base-free mechanochemical synthesis of a tris allyl aluminum complex.

Scheme Mechanochemical synthesis of tris allyl aluminum complex []. The success of the mechanochemical synthesis over traditional solvent-based synthesis in different areas has been recognized over the decades.

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Importantly catalytic application of these mechano-synthesized complexes are also explored. Advantageously this methodology was applicable for both solid and liquid olefins. Scheme Mechanochemical Ru-catalyzed olefin metathesis reaction []. Transition-metal-catalyzed activation and functionalization of inert C—H bonds of organic molecules provides a broad avenue in the synthesis of wide range of compounds.

In , Bolm and co-workers have successfully demonstrated rhodium III -catalyzed C—H bond functionalization under mechanochemical conditions []. Advantageously, the developed method adopted mild reaction conditions, i. This efficient technique was turned out to be a greener alternative to the common and mechanistically similar solution based method. They have also extended mechanochemical C—H functionalization methodology by varying the metal catalyst from rhodium to iridium. They could also isolate cyclic iridium complex H in ball-milling conditions.

With 2. Scheme Mechanochemical Rh-catalyzed C sp2 —X bond formation []. The protocol was also equally applicable to electron deficient oximes and electron rich anilides []. Scheme Mechanochemical Pd-catalyzed C—H activation [].