After preliminary tests have been performed, the sample is commonly dissolved in water for later determination of anionic constituents i. The procedure followed is based on the principle of treating the solution with a succession of reagents so that each reagent separates a group of constituents.
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The groups are then treated successively with reagents that divide a large group into subgroups or separate the constituents singly. When a constituent has been separated it is further examined to confirm its presence and to establish the amount present quantitative analysis. Portions of the material are dissolved separately, and different procedures are used for each to detect the cationic and anionic constituents.
A typical analytical scheme for the separation of the cations into groups is summarized in the table.
The analysis for anions is more difficult and less systematic than that for cations. The organic nature of a compound is generally indicated by its behaviour on being heated in air; solids usually melt, then burn with either a smoky or nonsmoky flame, in some instances leaving a black residue of carbon. The elements usually present in these compounds are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and, occasionally, phosphorus, halogens, and some metals.
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Specific tests are available for each of the individual elements. Qualitative chemical analysis. Info Print Cite. You could not be signed in. Sign In Forgot password? Don't have an account? Sign in via your Institution Sign in.
Qualitative chemical analysis
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Is it easy? However, the qualitative analysis that helps them know what compound is what. Just like your teachers conduct tests to know which subject you are bad at, the chemical scientists also have a number of tests to know which is which compound.
tensorflow.embedded-vision.com/abb-acs800-04-usuario-manual.php In this chapter, we will study the Qualitative analysis of organic compounds. However, before we start, let us go through all the basic tests first.
The most commonly occurring elements in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and halogen elements. There is no direct method for the detection of oxygen. In order to detect them, it is necessary to convert them into ionisable inorganic substances. We can detect cyanide ion and hence, nitrogen ion in the sample by the Prussian blue test.
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The filtered alkaline solution resulting from the action of water upon the sodium fusion is treated iron II sulphate and thus, forms sodium hexacyanoferrate II. Upon boiling the alkaline iron II salt solution, some iron III ions are insensibly produced by the action of air. A Prussian blue precipitate or colouration indicates that nitrogen is present.