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THINKING STYLES AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING TRAINING: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

Though questions concerning human intelligence have absorbed psychologists for a long time, this area of inquiry has received little attention in consumer research. Intelligence is likely to affect how consumers process information and arrive at decisions. Intelligence is likely to affect how marketers advertisers, sales promoters, and salespeople formulate persuasive schemes.

Thus, a greater emphasis on researching intelligence in the consumer domain appears to be called for. Robert J. Sternberg, a psychologist who is considered by many as the principal contributor in current times to research on intelligence, spoke first for about half the session length in this special session.

He spoke on his recent work on styles of thinking, a theory that concerns the use of intelligence. In earlier work, Sternberg e. Following Sternberg, Stijn Van Osselaer, University of Florida, described an application of the theory of thinking styles to problem solving.

Then I spoke on the matching of consumers' and salespeople's thinking styles. Lastly, Bart Weitz, University of Florida, discussed the three presentations. Sternberg introduced his thinking styles as a preference in the use of one's abilities; often one failed to learn not because one lacked the ability but because the style of teaching was not a preferred one.

For example, he had assumed that he lacked the ability to learn languages after being exposed to the mimic and memorize methods of instruction; when exposed to context based methods of language learning he found that he had the ability to learn languages after all. After reviewing some alternative theories of style, he presented his own which is based on the metaphor of government-it views intellectual or thinking styles in terms of mental self-government. Just as there are three functions of government, legislature, executive and judiciary, there are three functions of mental self-government.

The legislative function of the mind is concerned with creating, formulating, imagining, and planning.

The executive function is concerned with implementing and with doing. The judicial function is concerned with judging, evaluating, and comparing. To illustrate these styles he described three car salespeople he encountered. The legislative salesperson discussed with him how he would use the car, the executive salesperson focused on financing, and the judicial salesperson evaluated for him competitors' cars as inferior.

He bought from the legislative salesperson since he, the customer, is legislative too.


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Just as there are four forms of government, monarchic, hierarchic, oligarchic and anarchic, there are four parallel forms of mental self-government. The monarchic form is characterized by a preference for tasks and situations that allows focusing on one thing or aspect at a time and staying with that aspect until it is completed. The hierarchic form involves setting multiple goals, each of which have a different priority.

The oligarchic form allows for multiple goals, all of which are equally important. Finally, the anarchic form is characterized by a preference for activities that lend themselves to great sometimes too great flexibility of approaches and to trying almost anything.

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In earlier work, Sternberg e. Following Sternberg, Stijn Van Osselaer, University of Florida, described an application of the theory of thinking styles to problem solving. Then I spoke on the matching of consumers' and salespeople's thinking styles. Lastly, Bart Weitz, University of Florida, discussed the three presentations. Sternberg introduced his thinking styles as a preference in the use of one's abilities; often one failed to learn not because one lacked the ability but because the style of teaching was not a preferred one.

For example, he had assumed that he lacked the ability to learn languages after being exposed to the mimic and memorize methods of instruction; when exposed to context based methods of language learning he found that he had the ability to learn languages after all. After reviewing some alternative theories of style, he presented his own which is based on the metaphor of government-it views intellectual or thinking styles in terms of mental self-government.

Just as there are three functions of government, legislature, executive and judiciary, there are three functions of mental self-government.

What are Bonchek and Steele Thinking Styles?

The legislative function of the mind is concerned with creating, formulating, imagining, and planning. The executive function is concerned with implementing and with doing. The judicial function is concerned with judging, evaluating, and comparing. To illustrate these styles he described three car salespeople he encountered.

The legislative salesperson discussed with him how he would use the car, the executive salesperson focused on financing, and the judicial salesperson evaluated for him competitors' cars as inferior. He bought from the legislative salesperson since he, the customer, is legislative too. Just as there are four forms of government, monarchic, hierarchic, oligarchic and anarchic, there are four parallel forms of mental self-government.

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Identify Your Thinking Style | HBR Ascend

The monarchic form is characterized by a preference for tasks and situations that allows focusing on one thing or aspect at a time and staying with that aspect until it is completed. The hierarchic form involves setting multiple goals, each of which have a different priority. The oligarchic form allows for multiple goals, all of which are equally important. Finally, the anarchic form is characterized by a preference for activities that lend themselves to great sometimes too great flexibility of approaches and to trying almost anything. The level of mental self-government suggests that individuals vary in their degree of concern with detail.

At the local level there is a preference for tasks, projects, and situations that require engagement with specific, concrete details. At the global level there is preference for problems that are general in nature and that require abstract thinking. The scope of mental self-government can be either internal or external. On the one hand, the internal style refers to a preference for projects, tasks, or events that allow one to work independently from others.


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On the other hand, the external style refers to a preference for activities that allow working and interacting with others at different stages of progress. The two leanings of government suggest that individuals vary in their degree of adherence to pre-existing rules or structures, that is, in their degree of mental liberalism and conservatism. Holistic thinking — refers to the ability to see the big picture and recognize the interconnectedness of various components that form the larger system.

The 8 styles of thinking: Unlock awesome writing by rewiring your brain

Are you the sort of writer that must write your scenes or chapters in the order in which they happen? You might be. I suspect that most of us are. Sometimes it pays to write the powerful stuff first. I sometimes find myself piecing together the narrative from the constituent parts. Let yourself be given more rules.

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Sometimes that can be difficult. Though not impossible.


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  • Every sentence in this paragraph begins with the last letter of the previous sentence. Even though this was hard, it still helped slow down my writing. Great fun. Never again. Note to reader — this paragraph took ages. You need to get good at all the different types of thought, but meta-cognition thinking about thinking will only improve your output. Sign in. Get started. The 8 styles of thinking: Unlock awesome writing by rewiring your brain. The more you understand about how you think, the more able you are to hijack your own psychology to achieve your writing goals.

    James Rush Follow. Creative Thinking vs. Analytical Thinking. Convergent Thinking vs. Divergent Thinking. Concrete Thinking vs. Abstract Thinking.